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In the biosphere, both carbon-14 and carbon-12 atoms are added to the food chain via assimilation; first by plants through photosynthesis and then by animals through consumption of the plants.

For an animal or a plant, a carbon-14 atom is no different from a carbon-12 atom in assimilation.

Today, archeologists and paleontologists employ this technique to determine the age of organic materials (bones, teeth, wood, etc.) that are less than fifty thousand years in age. The theory is simple: Cosmic particles coming from outer space continuously collide with stable carbon-12 atoms in CO2 molecules, which are widespread in the atmosphere.

Each carbon-12 atom takes up two neutrons and is converted into a radioactive carbon-14 atom.

The results of these important abnormal conclusions in radiocarbon dating were summarized in the Introduction to Prehistoric Archaeology as follows: for years, it was thought that possible errors could have minor effects, however, recent research shows that the natural concentration of carbon-14 deviates at some certain periods, significantly affecting the calculated ages.

Secondly, the method also assumes that the carbon supply to the organism was made only by the global carbon cycle and no other source of carbon has affected the system.

Initial concerns about the possible sources of error were focused on the constant ratio assumption.

So, why did the constant ratio assumption turn out to be incorrect?

This goes on until a very minuscule, undetectable amount remains.

In bodies less than 50,000 years in age the amount of radiocarbon can be detected.

For an older body, the amount of radiocarbon is so small that the instruments would be unable to measure the amount of radiocarbon present.

By investigating the orientation of magnetic minerals in ancient rocks, geologists have proven that the magnetic field surrounding the Earth has not been constant throughout the time.

Today, it is widely accepted that both the strength and direction of the Earths magnetic field has changed.

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